Figure 1. Set of kidney stones of the same patient (a), examined individually according to their appearance (b, c and d). Typical calcium oxalate monohydrate kidney stone (e). Several kidney stones of 388.5 mg corresponding to the same patient (a). Depending on their appearance three kidney stones are distinguised: the first is brown, smooth, rounded surface and hard fracture consistency (b). The second is light brown, smooth, rounded surface and hard fracture consistency (c). The third is grayish, with a rough surface, and intermediate hardness (d).
Kidney stones belong to a 54-year-old patient with surgical history of multiple renal lithiasis, who presents an episode of left obstructive uropathy with infection due to a new event of lithiasis. She required a double J stent placement.